Trade Marketing
Trade marketing is a discipline of marketing that relates to increasing the demand at wholesaler, retailer, or distributor level rather than at the consumer level. However, there is a need to continue with Brand Management strategies to sustain the need at the consumer end. A shopper, who may be the consumer him/herself, is the one who identifies and purchases a product from a retailer. To ensure that a retailer promotes a company's product against competitors', that company must market its product to the retailers as well. Trade marketing might also include offering various tangible/intangible benefits to retailers. The alignment of sales and marketing discipline to profitability can be another explanation for trade marketing.

Trade marketing is the basic idea of marketing your products through the value chain and at the point of sale i.e. the store. Consider it the idea of creating a demand for your products across the channel and before it reaches the consumer. This traditionally exists in a brick and mortar environment and can be argued to be one of the oldest forms of marketing.

Indirect VS Direct Investment
The total value of equity backed securities in the United States rose over 600% in the 25 years between 1989 and 2012 as market capitalization expanded from $2,789,999,902,720 to $18,668,333,210,000. The demographic composition of stock market participation, accordingly, is the main determinant of the distribution of gains from this growth. Direct ownership of stock by households rose slightly from 17.8% in 1992 to 17.9% in 2007 with the median value of these holdings rising from $14,778 to $17,000. Indirect participation in the form of retirement accounts rose from 39.3% in 1992 to 52.6% in 2007 with the median value of these accounts more than doubling from $22,000 to $45,000 in that time. Rydqvist, Spizman, and Strebulaev attribute the differential growth in direct and indirect holdings to differences in the way each are taxed. Investments in pension funds and 401ks, the two most common vehicles of indirect participation, are taxed only when funds are withdrawn from the accounts. Conversely, the money used to directly purchase stock is subject to taxation as are any dividends or capital gains they generate for the holder. In this way current tax code incentivizes households to invest indirectly at greater rates.

Doha rounds
The Doha round of World Trade Organization negotiations aimed to lower barriers to trade around the world, with a focus on making trade fairer for developing countries. Talks have been hung over a divide between the rich developed countries, represented by the G20, and the major developing countries. Agricultural subsidies are the most significant issue upon which agreement has been hardest to negotiate. By contrast, there was much agreement on trade facilitation and capacity building. The Doha round began in Doha, Qatar, and negotiations were continued in: CancĂșn, Mexico; Geneva, Switzerland; and Paris, France and Hong Kong.

Beginning around 1978, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) began an experiment in economic reform. In contrast to the previous Soviet-style centrally planned economy, the new measures progressively relaxed restrictions on farming, agricultural distribution and, several years later, urban enterprises and labor. The more market-oriented approach reduced inefficiencies and stimulated private investment, particularly by farmers, that led to increased productivity and output. One feature was the establishment of four (later five) Special Economic Zones located along the South-east coast.

The reforms proved spectacularly successful in terms of increased output, variety, quality, price and demand. In real terms, the economy doubled in size between 1978 and 1986, doubled again by 1994, and again by 2003. On a real per capita basis, doubling from the 1978 base took place in 1987, 1996 and 2006. By 2008, the economy was 16.7 times the size it was in 1978, and 12.1 times its previous per capita levels. International trade progressed even more rapidly, doubling on average every 4.5 years. Total two-way trade in January 1998 exceeded that for all of 1978; in the first quarter of 2009, trade exceeded the full-year 1998 level. In 2008, China's two-way trade totaled US$2.56 trillion.

In 1991 China joined the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation group, a trade-promotion forum. In 2001, it also joined the World Trade Organization.

Source : Wikipedia

Please Wait...